Ki Teitzei | Why does the Torah promise the reward of a long life to those who honour their parents?
In 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, two young astronomers, stumbled on the origins of the universe completely by accident. Sitting at their desks at Bell Labs, New Jersey, they suddenly picked up a strange buzzing sound from their telescope. The noise was emanating from all parts of the sky at all times. Puzzled by the odd signal, Penzias and Wilson did their best to eliminate all possible sources of interference, even removing some pigeons that were nesting in the antenna.
A year later, it was confirmed – this inexplicable hum was in fact Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the radiation left over from the birth of the universe, providing the strongest possible evidence that the universe expanded from an initial violent explosion, known as The Big Bang. The CMB remains one of the most important scientific discoveries in history. In one fell swoop, the Big Bang theory – the theory that the universe had a beginning – displaced the dominant Steady State model – that the universe had no beginning, that it simply always was.
Of course, this idea that the universe had a beginning, that it was created anew, is what Jews have maintained for thousands of years.
The subject of the origins of life comes up in this week’s parsha, Ki Teitze, via a surprising route. In the parsha, we read about the mitzvah of Shiluach HaKen – sending away the mother bird before taking the eggs or fledglings from the nest. The reward the Torah promises for this seemingly minor action is startling “…so that it will be good for you and your days will be lengthened.” (Deuteronomy 22:7).
There is in fact only one other mitzvah in the Torah for which the reward is long life: the commandment to honour one’s parents (Deuteronomy 5:16). The Talmud says this refers to life in the next world, which is truly eternal. Why is long life associated with these two commandments?
The Kli Yakar draws the connection between sending away the mother bird and honouring one’s parents – they are both mitzvot which involve honouring parents, whether human or avian.
But the Kli Yakar takes it one step further. He says that the great reward promised for the fulfilment of these two mitzvot is because they touch on one of the foundational Jewish beliefs – that G-d is the Creator of all existence.
Both mitzvot encourage a person to think about origins. When we show respect to our parents, we acknowledge them as the source of our very existence. When we send away the mother bird, we are likewise showing sensitivity to the plight of the mother, the source of life for these eggs or fledglings. Reflecting deeply on this should eventually lead us to reflect on the source of all life – the Creator Himself.
The Gemara says that there are three partners in the creation of a child – a father, mother and G-d. By respecting our parents, we are acknowledging those who gave birth to us. But our parents were also the product of their own parents. And that set of parents, our grandparents, were in turn the product of their parents, our great-grandparents, and so on, going all the way back to the beginning of time, to the first set of parents, Adam and Eve, who were brought into existence by G-d Himself. So by implication, by honouring our parents, we are also acknowledging our Father in Heaven, the Creator of the universe, the One Who brought everything into being.
And that’s why, explains the Kli Yakar, Shabbos and the mitzvah of honouring our parents are juxtaposed in various places in the Torah, including the Ten Commandments. Shabbos is an even more explicit acknowledgement of G-d as the Creator of the universe. When we keep Shabbos we are testifying to the fact that G-d created the world in six days and rested on the seventh. When we say Kiddush on Friday night, we refer to Shabbos as “A remembrance of the Acts of Creation”. This is why Shabbos is not just something we do or observe, it’s something we believe.
The Kli Yakar calls this foundational idea – that G-d created the universe anew, from nothing – Chidush HaOlam, literally “the newness of the world”. Of course, this “newness of the world”, stands in direct contrast to what was, as we have said, the accepted scientific wisdom from the time of Aristotle until deep into the twentieth century: that the physical universe had always simply existed. Only with the acceptance of the Big Bang theory has science taken the tentative first steps towards Jewish belief. Today science endorses the Chidush HaOlam – but obviously what lies at the heart of Jewish belief is that G-d created everything in the universe, and it is this article of faith that animates these three mitzvot of honouring parents, sending away the mother bird and Shabbos.
The very first mitzvah in the list of the 613 commandments compiled by the Rambam is belief in G-d. What’s interesting is how the Rambam frames it at the beginning of his magnum opus, the Yad HaChazaka: “The foundation of foundations and the pillar of wisdoms is to know there exists an original source, and that He brought into being everything that exists, and that everything which is found in heaven and earth and between them only came into being through the truth of His creation.” Notice how the Rambam intertwines the idea of G-d’s existence with the idea that He created the universe. In Jewish thought, these two ideas are inseparable. Notice also that the Rambam writes here that we should ‘know” that G-d created the world, and yet when he compiles his list of the 613 mitzvot in another of his major works, the Sefer HaMitzvot – he stresses the importance “to believe” in G-d as the Creator of the universe.
What is the difference between these two ways of phrasing the mitzva “to believe” or “to know”? To explain the distinction, Rav Yosef Dov Soloveitchik says that when the Rambam refers to believing in G-d, he means the intellectual understanding and acceptance of this foundational article of faith, whereas to know that G-d exists refers to more of an experiential reality – knowing G-d is about living G-d, and feeling His presence and seeing His hand in everything. “To know” there is a G-d means taking belief beyond the realm of the intellectual and philosophical, and applying it in practical terms. Belief lies in the realm of philosophy and ideology; knowledge is more “real”; it is about living with an idea every single day.
Rav Soloveitchik cites a passage in the Gemara (Chagigah 16a), “He who looks at three things – a rainbow, a Nasi (the head of the Sanhedrin), and the Kohanim (while they are delivering their priestly blessing) – his eyes become dim”. He interprets the Gemara to mean that someone who sees a natural phenomenon and does not recognise the Hand of G-d in that phenomenon, is not seeing the world for its true reality. Rav Soloveitchik explains that all three refer to situations wherein one should see and feel the presence of G-d, and that if someone looks at these things and does not see G-d, they lack sensitivity and discernment, and their eyes “become dim” as a result.
In a rainbow, one can see the magnificence of G-d in the physical world. We have to be able to look at G-d’s awesome Creations and see their beauty and perfection. Similarly, when one sees a Nasi, the head of the Sanhedrin and a great Torah scholar, one is confronted by the awesome intellectual and spiritual power that G-d has created and bestowed upon man. We should be inspired by the greatness of the human mind. And when the Kohanim bless the people, we feel the presence of G-d in another way.
We read that the Kohanim are commanded “to bless the nation of Israel with love.” Rav Soloveitchik explains that this is why, when the Kohanim recite the blessing prior to Birkat Kohanim, their hands are clenched, and, as they turn around to face the people and bless them, they open up their hands. A clenched fist symbolises selfishness and self-absorption, while an open hand symbolises love and concern for the wellbeing of others. When we see this love and appreciation for others on the faces and through the gestures of the Kohanim, we should feel the presence of G-d, Himself. Rav Soloveitchik cites Rabbeinu Bechayei, who says that when one witnesses the love between a mother and her child, one sees the presence of G-d.
To know G-d is to live with an acute awareness of all the miracles around us. It is to view the world with fresh eyes, with a sense of wonder and appreciation. It is to see G-d’s presence in everything; to feel close to G-d in good times and difficult times. To know G-d is not an intellectual pursuit, it is an experiential reality that colours the way we live, that animates life itself.
What’s remarkable is that these big ideas, these foundational truths that lie at the very heart of Judaism are opened up for us by something as seemingly small as the mitzvah of Shiluach HaKen – sending away the mother bird.